Java vs C++: Top 10 Differences You Need to Know

Everyone is aware that java and C++  are object-oriented programming languages, yet these languages are very popular nowadays. Java is a general-purpose, high-level programming language, whereas C++ is a general-purpose programming language that supports object-oriented programming. Both of them are very popular in the software development industry.

Many people are interested in both languages. One of the reasons for this interest is that both languages are used for building operating systems. The applications built with the help of these languages are also used to perform various other tasks.

However, there are some similarities and differences between both programming languages. Here are the top ten differences between Java vs C++ programming.

Let’s get started with the key differences between java vs c++.

What is Java?

Java is a general-purpose programming language. It was first released in 1995. In addition, it is the foundation of large numbers of applications and websites. 

Moreover, Java is quick, safe, and dependable. It is platform-independent and runs on any machine via a compiler.

Java is an object-oriented programming language with a high level of abstraction that is designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. 

It supports the WORA (Write Once, Read Anywhere) feature. In other words, compiled Java code can run without recompilation on any platform that supports Java.

Furthermore, Java has many frameworks built on top of it, such as Spring, Dagger, and others, which aid developers in their work.

Features of Java Programming

Here are some important features of Java programming language. 

  • Java is an object-oriented programming language. In Java, everything is an object.
  • It is platform-independent because it differs from other programming languages such as C, C++, etc.
  • The most well-known feature of Java is its security. We can create virus-free systems using this language.
  • It is architecture agnostic because there are no implementation-dependent features in Java programming. 
  • Java is portable because it allows you to move Java bytecode from one platform to another. It does not necessitate any implementation.

Also read: Java vs Python

What is C++?

C++ is an object-oriented, general-purpose programming language. Bjarne Stroustrup developed it at Bell Labs around 1980.

Additionally, it is used to create applications, websites, and other things. C++ gives programmers greater access to system resources and memory. 

C++ was created in order for programs to be written once and compiled anywhere. This language does not platform agnostic.

C++ encompasses both high- and low-level language features. As a result, it is classified as an intermediate-level language. It was previously known as “C with classes” because it had all of the properties of the C language.

Features of C++ Programming

Here are some essential features of the C++ programming language.

  • C++ is capable of both low-level and high-level programming. This is why C++ is referred to as a mid-level programming language.
  • It offers a wide range of library functions that you can use to implement the solution.
  • C++ is a platform-independent programming language. Having said that, C++ programs can be run on a variety of machines with little or no modification.
  • It allows for dynamic memory allocation. You can always free the allocated memory.
  • C++ is a fast language because of its short compilation and execution times.

Comparison Table: Java vs C++

The following table summarises the key differences between C++ and Java:

ParameterJava C++
DevelopedJames Gosling created Java at Sun Microsystems. Oracle now owns the company.Bjarne Stroustrup created C++ in 1979 at Bell Labs. It was created as an extension to the C programming language.
Platform dependenceIt is platform-independent. Additionally, It is based on the Write Once, Run Anywhere principle.C++ is platform-specific. It is based on the Write Once, Compile Anywhere principle.
UseJava is primarily used for application development. It is commonly used in Windows, web, enterprise, and mobile applications.C++ is most commonly used in system programming.
PointerInternally, Java supports pointers. However, the pointer program cannot be written in Java. It means that java has limited pointer support.Pointers are supported in C++. In C++, you can write a pointer program.
Memory ManagementMemory management in Java is managed by the system.Memory management is done manually in C++.
Programming modelIt only supports object-oriented programming models.It supports procedural programming as well as object-oriented programming.
Compilation and InterpretationJava can be compiled as well as interpreted.C ++ can only be compiled and not interpreted.
Features supportedIt does not support operators as overloading, Goto statements, structures, unions, and other features.C++ includes features such as operator overloading, Goto statements, structures, pointers, unions, and so on.
Thread SupportThread support is built into Java.Thread support is not built into C++. Thread support is provided by third-party libraries.
Virtual KeywordThere is no virtual keyword in Java. By default, we can override all non-static methods.C++ supports the virtual keyword, which allows us to choose whether or not to override a function.

Java vs C++: Key Differences 

Let’s get started with the key differences between Java and C++ programming.


Java pointers, templates, pointer overloading, unions, and so on are not supported in Java.

Whereas, pointers, Structures, Unions, Templates, Operator Overloading, and Pointers Arithmetic are all supported in C++.

Goto Statement

Java does not have a Goto statement. Even if they are not used, the keywords cast and goto are reserved.

On the other hand, C++ has a goto connection. Still, this is not regarded as a good practice for using Goto explanations.

Multiple inheritances

Java does not support multiple inheritances in the same way that C++ does.

Whereas, C++ allows for multiple inheritances. If there is any ambiguity between different conditions, the keyword uses virtual to resolve it.

Thread Support

Threads built into Java are supported. To create a new thread in Java, override the Run method that inherits from the thread class.

On the other hand, C++ does not come with any built-in support. Third-party libraries are required.

Exception Handling

Exception handling is unique because there are no destructors,. If a function declares that it can throw an exception, try/catch should be defined in Java.

You can skip this attempt/get in C++ regardless of what the capacity returns.

Java vs C++: Major Similarities

Here are some similarities between java and C++ programming languages.

  • Both languages have the very similar syntax in terms of looping structures, classes, defined variables, and conditional operators. This makes cross-platform work easier for developers who must use both languages in multiple projects.
  • When your program starts, the compiler or interpreter determines where to begin execution. The “main” entry point is viewed in both Java and C++.
  • Object Orientation is the idea that languages use classes to represent program elements. C++ and Java are both object-oriented programming languages.
  • The comments in C++ and Java code are identical.

Java vs C++: Which is better

Java and C++ can both be used to create a wide range of programs. What you want to develop, however, is determined by the language you use.

Java is the foundation of Android development, it is the language of choice if you want to create a mobile application specifically for Android. It is common for web and desktop apps, as well as server-side applications. It is a well-known and versatile programming language.

C++ is the best fit for system programming, low-level application development, gaming, and native programming. C++ shines in large and fast software like enterprise systems to manage large amounts of data like libraries, employees, and reservations.

The majority of experts will tell you that Java is simpler to learn. It is a newer language than C++ and does not have as complex principles or execution. However, there is more to consider than the learning curve of a language. What you want to do with a programming language determines your choice.

Java vs C++: Which one is Popular

C++ has exceeded Java in popularity. According to Google Trends, C++’s popularity exceeded Java in 2022:

Furthermore, we will show you a graph that will make it clear which language is popular. In this graph, Java is denoted as blue, and C++ is denoted as red. It shows the Ups and downs of both programming languages in the form of a line.  


We have now seen an in-depth comparison of Java vs C++. You may be aware that Java and C++ share many similarities as well as significant differences.

C++ and Java are both extremely powerful programming languages. To gain a strong understanding of computer programming, you should consider learning both.

If you must choose between the two, consider the type of applications you wish to develop. C++ is an excellent choice for developing Windows applications. You can also use Java to create app servers, enterprise applications, and so on.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is C++ powerful than Java?

We cannot say that one language is more powerful than another until the criteria for comparison are specified. In other words, C++ wins in terms of performance. However, in terms of usability, Java clearly outperforms.

Should you learn C++ or Java?

For beginners, it is preferable to learn C++ because its syntax is simpler than that of Java and it provides extensive support for standard data structures such as stacks, queues, and so on.

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